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Woman taking supplements. Text: The 6 best mitochondrial supplements for health and support in 2024

The 6 Best Mitochondrial Supplements For Health and Support in 2024

We all know that the "mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell," but what does this actually mean, and how does it relate to our overall health?

My favorite analogy is to compare the body to a smartphone, with the mitochondria taking the role of the battery, which is needed to run everything from snapping photos, running apps, making calls, or surfing the web. The phone entirely relies on the health and longevity of the battery.

Similarly, the human body relies on these tiny, self-charging biological batteries, the mitochondria, to perform everything from small muscle movements to complex cognitive tasks.

Just as you'd manage your phone's battery life by updating software, adjusting screen brightness, or closing unused apps, some scientifically-backed strategies and supplements can "optimize your settings" for better mitochondrial function. Doing so can result in better energy levels, athletic and cognitive performance, and, potentially, a slower biological clock.

In this article, we'll take a closer look at dietary supplements that help mitochondrial function and ways you can naturally improve your health with diet and lifestyle changes.

What Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction?

Mitochondrial dysfunction can stem from various factors from aging, which naturally reduces mitochondrial efficiency, genetic disorders affecting mitochondrial function, mitochondrial diseases and other health complications like diabetes or heart disease, and oxidative damage from environmental stressors.

All these issues can lead to diminished energy levels, accelerated signs of aging, and compromised health, leading to chronic diseases, which is why it's so important to be aware of and nurture our wellness at this cellular level.

Signs of Poor Mitochondrial Function

Just like your phone might lag or drain its battery quickly when there's an issue with the power source, your body sends signals when mitochondrial function is compromised.

Some of the signs of poor mitochondrial health include:

  • Chronic fatigue: This isn't simply feeling tired after a long day — it's an exhaustion that doesn't seem to improve with rest. It's as if your body's "battery" can't hold a charge, affecting your overall energy levels.
  • Muscle weakness and pain: Poor mitochondria functioning can weaken muscle strength and endurance, making everyday activities more difficult.
  • Cognitive difficulties: Brain fog, memory lapses, and trouble concentrating can all stem from insufficient mitochondrial energy metabolism in the brain.
  • Slow recovery from illness or injury: When the mitochondria aren't functioning well, the body's healing processes can be slower, making a recovery much slower.
  • Aging signs: Accelerated aging, like fine lines and wrinkles, and the onset of age-related diseases can be exacerbated by mitochondrial dysfunction.

Recognizing these signals is important for early intervention for optimizing one's health span. Still, we also want to underscore that many of these signs can be found in other health conditions and shouldn't be your guide for self-diagnosis for mitochondrial dysfunction disorders.

If you have any concerns about your health, it's important that you speak with a healthcare professional who can accurately diagnose and provide tailored treatment options.

Can Supplements Boost Mitochondrial Health?

While it's true that no supplement is the answer to reverse genetic conditions or cure diseases outright, there is a silver lining. There's a growing body of research that points to certain supplements with properties to nurture mitochondrial function.

These supplements work with the body's innate mechanism, helping our cellular batteries run smoothly.

Making choices that impact our well-being, like keeping an active lifestyle, reducing stress, and incorporating these supportive nutrients, can be a step towards improving mitochondrial health and, by extension, our health span.

The Best Mitochondrial Supplements

  1. NMN Supplements by Neurogan Health
  2. Alpha-lipoic Acid by Now Supplements
  3. Urolithin A by Neurogan Health
  4. Acetyl L-Carnitine by Nutricost
  5. CoEnzyme Q10 by Neurogan Health
  6. D-Ribose by Life Extension

Nicotinamide Mononucleotide by Neurogan Health

Bottle of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide by Neurogan Health

Nicotinamide mononucleotide, or NMN, is a precursor to Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+). This naturally occurring coenzyme declines with age and is needed for energy production, DNA repair, and overall mitochondrial health.

By boosting NAD+ levels, NMN supplementation supports the mitochondria's ability to produce energy more efficiently [1]. On top of this, increased NAD+ levels can activate sirtuins, a group of proteins linked to longevity and mitochondrial biogenesis (the process by which new mitochondria are formed within cells [2].

At Neurogan Health, you can find high-quality vegan NMN supplements in tabletsgummies, and capsules to fit your dietary supplement preferences. All our products are made in our cGMP facility in San Diego and tested by an independent lab for quality assurance and safety.

We've made it our mission to collaborate with researchers at the University of Aalborg in Denmark to produce dietary supplements that empower our customers to take their wellness into their own hands, and NMN supplementation is a well-researched way to support mitochondrial health.

Alpha Lipoic Acid by Now Supplements

Bottle of Alpha Lipoic Acid by Now Supplements

Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) supports mitochondrial function in several ways.

First, ALA has strong antioxidant capabilities, which help to neutralize free radicals in the mitochondria, protecting them from damage [3]. ALA also has a unique ability to regenerate other antioxidants like vitamins C, E, and glutathione. By helping to restore these antioxidants to their active form, ALA is believed to enhance the body's overall antioxidant defense system.

Within the mitochondria, alpha-lipoic acid is involved in the metabolic process that turns nutrients into energy in the Krebs cycle [4].

NOW Supplement's Alpha-Lipoic Acid is a dependable option in optimal doses of ALA in convenient capsules. NOW has a long-standing reputation in the supplement space for producing high-quality, affordable dietary supplements.

Urolithin A by Neurogan Health

Bottle of Urolithin A by Neurogan Health

This is a bit more of a newer, niche compound, but it's becoming really popular because of the positive research findings on its role in maintaining cellular health [5]. Urolithin A is a metabolite the gut produces after consuming foods high in ellagitannins, like pomegranates, certain berries, and nuts.

Urolithin A has been shown to stimulate mitophagy, a critical process for maintaining healthy mitochondria. Mitophagy is the selective cleaning of damaged mitochondria, allowing for their replacement with newly formed mitochondria [5].

Our pure and potent Urolithin A supplements allow for improved bioavailability in the gut, ensuring the body can effectively use the compound, and they're our best-selling dietary supplements.

For those new to Urolithin A, our original formula, 700 mg of pure Urolithin A capsules, is a great place to start. If you want to boost your Urolithin A intake, our newly launched Urolithin Pro+ capsules contain 1000 mg per serving for advanced mitochondrial support.

Acetyl L-Carnitine by Nutricost

Bottle of Acetyl L-Carnitine by Nutricost

Acetyl L-carnitine (ALC or ALCAR) is an acetylated form of L-carnitine, an amino acid derivative often taken as a dietary supplement.

L-carnitine contributes to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (ATP production) by transporting fatty acids into the mitochondria, which will then be burned for energy. Most supplements use an acetylated form of L-carnitine because it can cross the blood-brain barrier, making it beneficial for mitochondrial health and cognitive function [6].

Acetyl L-carnitine also has antioxidant properties, helping the body reduce oxidative stress [7]. Oxidative stress can damage cell membranes, proteins, and DNA, contributing to aging and disease.

Nutricost has an appealing Acetyl L-carnitine supplement in powder form that you can easily add to water, protein shakes, or green juices. Nutricost is a recognized brand for its clean, straightforward ingredients and affordability, making them a dependable staple in many households.

Coenzyme Q10 by Neurogan Health

Bottle of Coenzyme Q10 by Neurogan Health

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is naturally found in every cell in the body, with particularly high concentrations in the heart, liver, kidneys, and pancreas. You might recognize this compound for supporting heart health, but it's also centrally involved in cellular energy production (ATP) as part of the electron transport chain [8].

It's also a notable antioxidant, helping to support the body's defenses against free radical damage and protect mitochondrial integrity [8].

We formulated our CoQ10 supplements differently from what's offered on the market. Each capsule contains a high-potency serving of 240 mg of CoQ10, along with black pepper extract, designed to enhance absorption, and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a fatty acid amide that supports the endocannabinoid system and offers additional wellness benefits.

D-Ribose by Life Extension

Bottle of D-Ribose by Life Extension

D-ribose is a sugar and a key component of the ATP molecule — the cell's energy currency. Because of this, this compound directly influences the mitochondria's ability to generate ATP.

During high stress, intense exercise, or illness, the body's demand for ATP can outstrip its ability to produce it. Supplementing with D-ribose can help replenish ATP stores more rapidly, aiding recovery and maintaining energy levels in cells, particularly muscle cells [9].

Supplementing with D-ribose can provide an immediate precursor to ATP synthesis, thereby supporting energy levels and muscle recovery.

Life Extension's D-Ribose supplement powder is among the top available products due to the brand's commitment to quality and research-backed formulations. This D-ribose powder is easily dissolved in liquids, making it an easy addition to your nutritional drinks.

What Vitamins Support The Mitochondria

In addition to the dietary supplements we've laid out in this list, covering your vitamins and minerals is just as important for supporting your mitochondrial health. Some of the vitamins and minerals directly related to mitochondrial health include:

  • B Vitamins: B vitamins are pivotal for mitochondrial function because they directly participate in energy metabolism. Each B vitamin has a unique role in converting nutrients into energy, protecting against oxidative stress, cellular communication, and DNA repair. You can get your daily B vitamins with a Vitamin B complex like our one at Neurogan Health.
  • Vitamin C: Beyond its reputation as a powerful antioxidant, vitamin C is essential for the synthesis of collagen, the repair of tissues, and the synthesis of neurotransmitters. It also regenerates other antioxidants, including vitamin E, amplifying their protective effects on mitochondria.
  • Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that integrates into cell membranes, protecting them from oxidative damage. This is particularly important for mitochondria, as they are cells' primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). By safeguarding the lipid-rich membranes of mitochondria, vitamin E ensures their integrity and functionality.
  • Iron: is needed for the function of cytochromes and iron-sulfur clusters in the electron transport chain, directly affecting ATP production within mitochondria.
  • Magnesium: Magnesium, a cofactor for ATP, is involved in over 300 cellular processes and is also needed for mitochondrial function.
  • Zinc: is involved in the structure and function of various enzymes and proteins involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism processes. It also has antioxidant properties that can protect mitochondria from oxidative damage.

What Foods Can Help the Mitochondria?

An anti-inflammatory diet, rich in antioxidants, can significantly support mitochondrial health.

Foods like leafy greens and berries are packed with nutrients like the vitamins we've outlined above. Nuts and seeds like almonds, walnuts, and flaxseeds contain alpha-lipoic acid and CoQ10, which we know are beneficial for the mitochondria.

Fasting and Mitochondrial Health

Fasting, particularly intermittent and periodic fasting, has become popular for its potential to improve mitochondrial function and, by extension, healthy aging.

Fasting has been shown to stimulate the production of new mitochondria (mitochondrial biogenesis) and to improve mitochondrial efficiency, making them better at producing ATP [10].

Another study published in Frontiers found that calorie restriction, which has similar physiological effects to fasting, promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and increases lifespan [11].

The Takeaway: Supplements for Mitochondrial Health

The mitochondrial lays the foundation for our overall well-being, influencing everything from our energy levels to how gracefully we age.

Mitochondrial support supplements like Urolithin A, D-ribose, and CoQ10 have been found to support mitochondrial function. Still, they're not cure-alls for chronic fatigue syndrome associated with mitochondrial disorders or any other metabolic conditions.

Adopting a holistic approach to mitochondrial health — stress management, regular physical activity, intermittent fasting, and a nutrient-rich diet — can significantly enhance our well-being. Each of these elements contributes to a broader strategy aimed at optimizing our health as we age.

While aging itself is an inevitable journey, focusing on the health of our mitochondria opens up pathways to navigate this process with grace and embrace a more fulfilling lifestyle. In doing so, we unlock the potential for a more energetic, resilient, and enjoyable life, proving the profound impact of these microscopic powerhouses on our overall quality of life.


  1. Shade, C. (2020). The science behind NMN–A stable, reliable NAD+ activator and anti-aging molecule. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician's Journal, 19(1), 12.
  2. Imai, S. I., & Guarente, L. (2014). NAD+ and sirtuins in aging and disease. Trends in cell biology, 24(8), 464-471.
  3. Salehi, B., Berkay Yılmaz, Y., Antika, G., Boyunegmez Tumer, T., Fawzi Mahomoodally, M., Lobine, D., ... & Sharifi-Rad, J. (2019). Insights on the use of α-lipoic acid for therapeutic purposes. Biomolecules, 9(8), 356.
  4. Salehi, B., Berkay Yılmaz, Y., Antika, G., Boyunegmez Tumer, T., Fawzi Mahomoodally, M., Lobine, D., ... & Sharifi-Rad, J. (2019). Insights on the use of α-lipoic acid for therapeutic purposes. Biomolecules, 9(8), 356.
  5. Andreux, P. A., Blanco-Bose, W., Ryu, D., Burdet, F., Ibberson, M., Aebischer, P., ... & Rinsch, C. (2019). The mitophagy activator urolithin A is safe and induces a molecular signature of improved mitochondrial and cellular health in humans. Nature Metabolism, 1(6), 595-603.
  6. Inano, A., Sai, Y., Nikaido, H., Hasimoto, N., Asano, M., Tsuji, A., & Tamai, I. (2003). Acetyl‐L‐carnitine permeability across the blood–brain barrier and involvement of carnitine transporter OCTN2. Biopharmaceutics & drug disposition, 24(8), 357-365.
  7. Lopez-Maldonado, A., Pastoriza, S., & Rufián-Henares, J. Á. (2021). Assessing the antioxidant and metabolic effect of an alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine nutraceutical. Current research in food science, 4, 336-344.
  8. Saini, R. (2011). Coenzyme Q10: The essential nutrient. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, 3(3), 466-467.
  9. Mahoney, D. E., Hiebert, J. B., Thimmesch, A., Pierce, J. T., Vacek, J. L., Clancy, R. L., ... & Pierce, J. D. (2018). Understanding D-ribose and mitochondrial function. Advances in bioscience and clinical medicine, 6(1), 1.
  10. Mehrabani, S., Bagherniya, M., Askari, G., Read, M. I., & Sahebkar, A. (2020). The effect of fasting or calorie restriction on mitophagy induction: a literature review. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, 11(6), 1447-1458.
  11. Savencu, C. E., Linţa, A., Farcaş, G., Bînă, A. M., Creţu, O. M., Maliţa, D. C., ... & Sturza, A. (2021). Impact of dietary restriction regimens on mitochondria, heart, and endothelial function: A brief overview. Frontiers in Physiology, 12, 768383.
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Katrina Lubiano

Based in Canada, Katrina is an experienced content writer and editor specializing in health and wellness. With a journalistic approach, she's crafted over 900,000 words on supplements, striving to debunk myths and foster a holistic approach to healthi...